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on the chain rather than in an enclosed compound, unless he is expected to go for a possible burglar and attack him. A wire-netting enclosure can easily be constructed at very little expense. For the more powerful dogs the use of wroughtiron railings is advisable, and these can be procured cheaply from Spratt's or Boulton and Paul's, fitted with gates and with revolving troughs for feeding from the outside.

Opinions differ as to the best material for the flooring of kennels and the paving of runs. Asphalte is suitable for either in mild weather, but in summer it becomes uncomfortably hot for the feet, unless it is partly composed of cork. Concrete has its advantages if the surface can be kept dry. Flagstones are cold for winter, as also are tiles and bricks. For terriers, who enjoy burrowing, earth is the best ground for the run, and it can be kept free from dirt and buried bones by a rake over in the morning, while tufts of grass left round the margins supply the dogs' natural medicine. The movable sleeping bench must, of course, be of wood, raised a few inches above the floor, with a ledge to keep in the straw or other bedding. Wooden floors are open to the objection that they absorb the urine; but dogs should be taught not to foul their nest, and in any case a frequent disinfecting with a solution of Pearson's or Jeyes' fluid should obviate impurity, while fleas, which take refuge in the dust between the planks, may be dismissed or kept away with a sprinkling of paraffin. Whatever the flooring, scrupulous cleanliness in the kennel is a prime necessity, and the inner walls should be frequently limewashed. It is important, too, that no scraps of rejected food or bones should be left lying about to become putrid or to tempt the visits of rats, which bring fleas. If the dogs do not finish their food when it is served to them, it should be removed until hunger gives appetite for the next meal.

Many breeders of the large and thick-coated varieties, such as St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, Old English Sheepdogs, and rough-haired Collies, give their dogs nothing to lie upon but clean bare boards. The coat is itself a sufficient cushion,


but in winter weather straw gives added warmth, and for short-haired dogs something soft, if it is only a piece of carpet or a sack, is needed as a bed to protect the hocks from abrasion.

With regard to feeding, this requires to be studied in relation to the particular breed. One good meal a day, served by preference in the evening, is sufficient for the adult if a dry dog-cake or a handful of rodnim be given for breakfast, and perhaps a large bone to gnaw at. Clean cold water must always be at hand in all weathers, and a drink of milk coloured with tea is nourishing. Goat's milk is particularly suitable for the dog : many owners keep goats on their premises to give a constant supply. It is a mistake to suppose, as many persons do, that meat diet provokes eczema and other skin troubles ; the contrary is the case. The dog is by nature a carnivorous animal, and wholesome flesh, either cooked or raw, should be his staple food. Horseflesh, which is frequently used in large establishments, is not so fully to be relied upon as ordinary butcher meat. There is no serious objection to bullocks' heads, sheeps' heads, bullocks' tripes and paunches and a little liver given occasionally is an aperient food which most dogs enjoy. But when it can be afforded, wholesome butcher's meat is without question the proper food. Oatmeal porridge, rice, barley, linseed meal, and bone meal ought only to be regarded as occasional additions to the usual meat diet, and are not necessary when dog cakes are regularly supplied. Well-boiled green vegetables, such as cabbage, turnip-tops, and nettle-tops, are good mixed with the meat ; potatoes are questionable. Of the various advertised dog foods, many of which are excellent, the choice may be left to those who are fond of experiment, or who seek for convenient substitutes for the old-fashioned and wholesome diet of the household. Sickly dogs require invalid's treatment ; but the best course is usually the simplest, and, given a sound constitution to begin with, any dog ought to thrive if he is only properly housed, carefully fed, and gets abundant exercise.


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