BREEDING AND WHELPING 323
fifteen, and it is well known that Mr. Statter's Setter Phoebe produced twenty-one at a birth. Phoebe reared ten of these herself, and almost every one of the family became celebrated. It would be straining the natural possibilities of any bitch to expect her to bring up eighteen puppies healthily. Half that number would tax her natural resources to the extreme. But Nature is extraordinarily adaptive in tempering the wind to the shorn lamb, and a dam who gives birth to a numerous litter ought not to have her family unduly reduced. It was good policy to allow Phoebe to have the rearing of as many as ten out of her twenty-one. A bitch having twelve will bring up nine very well, one having nine will rear seven with, out help, and a bitch having seven will bring up five better than four.
Breeders of Toy-dogs often rear the overplus offspring by hand, with the help of a Maw and Thompson feeding-bottle, peptonised milk, and one or more of the various advertised infants' foods or orphan puppy foods. Others prefer to engage or prepare in advance a foster-mother. The fostermother need not be of the same breed, but she should be
Dproximately of similar size, and her own family ought to be of the same age as the one of which she is to take additional charge. One can usually be secured through advertisement in the canine press. Some owners do not object to taking one from a dogs' home, which is an easy method, in consideration of the circumstance that by far the larger number of " lost " dogs are bitches sent adrift because they are in whelp. The chief risk in this course is that the unknown fostermother may be diseased or verminous or have contracted the seeds of distemper, or her milk may be populated with embryo worms. These are dangers to guard against. A cat makes an excellent foster-mother for Toy-dog puppies.
Worms ought not to be a necessary accompaniment of puppyhood, and if the sire and dam are properly attended to in advance they need not be. The writer has attended at the birth of puppies, not one of whom has shown the