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the way for the distemper poison ; (2) the healthier the dog the more power does he possess to resist contagion ; (3) when the disease is epizootic, it can often be kept at bay by proper attention to diet and exercise, frequent change of kennel straw, and perfect cleanliness ; (4) the predisposing causes which have come more immediately under my notice are debility, cold, damp, starvation, filthy kennels, unwholesome food, impure air, and grief. 4

The Age at which Dogs take Distemper-They may take distemper at any age ; the most common time of life is from the fifth till the eleventh or twelfth month.

Symptoms-There is, first and foremost, a period of latency or of incubation, in which there is more or less of dullness and loss of appetite, and this glides gradually into a state of feverishness. The fever may be ushered in with chills and shivering. The nose now becomes hot and dry, the dog is restless and thirsty, and the conjunctivae of the eyes will be found to be considerably injected. Sometimes the bowels are at first constipated, but they are more usually irregular. Sneezing will also be frequent, and in some cases cough, dry and husky at first. The temperature should be taken, and if there is a rise of two or three degrees the case should be treated as distemper, and not as a common cold.

At the commencement there is but little exudation from the eyes and nose, but as the disease advances this symptom will become more marked, being clear at first. So, too, will another symptom which is partially diagnostic of the malady, namely, increased heat of body combined with a rapid falling off in flesh, sometimes, indeed, proceeding quickly on to positive emaciation.

As the disease creeps downwards and inwards along the air-passages, the chest gets more and more affected, the discharge of mucus and pus from the nostrils more abundant, and the cough loses its dry character, becoming moist. The discharge from the eyes is simply mucus and pus, but if not constantly dried away will gum the inflamed lids together, that from the nostrils is not only purulent, but often mixed with dark blood. The appetite is now clean gone, and there is often vomiting and occasional attacks of diarrhoea.

Now in mild cases we may look for some abatement of the symptoms about the fourteenth day. The fever gets less, inflammation decreases in the mucous passages, and appetite is restored as one of the first signs of returning health. More often, however, the disease becomes complicated.

Diagnosis-The diagnostic symptoms are the severe catarrh; combined not only with lever, but speedy emaciation.

Pneumonia, as we might easily imagine, is a very likely complication, and a very dangerous one. There is great distress in breathing, the animal panting rapidly. The countenance is anxious, the pulse small and frequent, and the extremities cold. The animal would fain sit up on his haunches, or even seek to get out into the fresh air, but sickness, weakness, and prostration often forbid his movements. If the ear or stethoscope be applied to the chest, the characteristic signs of pneumonia will be heard ; these are sounds of moist crepitations, etc.

Bronchitis is probably the most common complication ; in fact,


it is always present, except in very mild cases. The cough becomes more severe, and often comes on in tearing paroxysms, causing sickness and vomiting. The breathing is short and frequent, the mouth hot and filled with viscid saliva, while very often the bowels are constipated. If the liver becomes involved, we shall very soon have the jaundiced eye and the yellow skin. Diarrhoea is another very common complication. We have frequent purging and, maybe, sickness and vomiting. Fits of a convulsive character are frequent concomitants of distemper. Epilepsy is sometimes seen, owing, no doubt, to degeneration of the nerve centres caused by blood-poisoning. There are many other complications, and skin complaints are common after it.

Treatment-This consists firstly in doing all in our power to guide the specific catarrhal fever to a safe termination ; and, secondly, in watching for and combating complications. Whenever we see a young dog ailing, losing appetite, exhibiting catarrhal symptoms, and getting thin, with a rise in temperature, we should not lose an hour. If he be an indoor dog, find him a good bed in a clean, well-ventilated apartment, free from lumber and free from dirt. If it be summer, have all the windows out or opened ; if winter, a little fire will be necessary, but have half the window opened at the same time ; only take precautions against his lying in a draught. Fresh air in cases of distemper, and, indeed, in fevers of all kinds, cannot be too highly extolled.

The more rest the dog has the better ; he must be kept free from excitement, and care must be taken to guard him against cold and wet when he goes out of doors to obey the calls of Nature. The most perfect cleanliness must be enjoined, and disinfectants used, such as permanganate of potash, carbolic acid, Pearson's, or Izal. If the sick dog, on the other hand, be one of a kennel of dogs, then quarantine must be adopted. The hospital should be quite removed from the vicinity of all other dogs, and as soon as the animal is taken from the kennel the latter should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected, and the other dogs kept warm and dry, well fed, and moderately exercised.

Food and Drink-For the first three or four days let the food be light and easily digested. In order to induce the animal to take it, it should be as palatable as possible. For small dogs you cannot have anything better than milk porridge.* At all events, the dog must, if possible, be induced to eat ; he must not be " horned " unless there be great emaciation ; he must not over-eat, but what he gets must be good. As to drink, dogs usually prefer clean cold water, and we cannot do harm by mixing therewith a little plain nitre.

Medicine-Begin by giving a simple dose of castor oil, just enough and no more than will clear out the bowels by one or two motions. Drastic purgatives, and medicines such as mercury, jalap, aloes, and podophyllyn, cannot be too highly condemned. For very small Toy dogs, such as Italian Greyhounds, Yorkshire Terriers, etc., I should not recommend even oil itself, but manna-one drachm to two drachms dissolved in milk. By simply getting the bowels to act once or twice, we shall have done enough for the first day, and have only to,make the dog comfortable for the night.

* Oatmeal porridge made with milk instead of water.



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