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In a large stable a great deal of the comfort and economy of running is dependent on the head coachman and his ability to train his undermen to their respective duties, besides keeping them up to the mark in other ways.

One of the very important points in the keeping of a healthy lot of horses lies in an early morning feed, thereby giving the animals time to properly digest their meal before they are called upon to go to work. A competent coachman will at least superintend the feeding, and will always attend to the doling out of each horse's rations himself; there is no other possible way of his accomplishing the desired result.

In another chapter, the coachman who simply fed his nags their mess of oats regularly and gave them bran mash on Saturdays is referred to as a duffer, and yet it is painful to realize that many such duffers exist. An intelligent man knows that a horse can not be kept in the bloom of condition by any such treatment, especially one with a delicate appetite. The food must be varied, and made easily digestible by crushing the grain and chopping the hay. In winter an occasional feed of steamed food or warm gruel is most nutritious, as are also carrots, beets, turnips, etc. Corn, wheat, rye, and barley 'crushed can at times be used, mixed with the oats, with good results, and in many little ways, such as

salting, moistening, etc., a mess can be made more pals

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