to the finding of a comfortable position for his head when held in restraint, and will tend to develop the necessary muscles.
The bit should be a snaffle, with iron keys or tassels attached, and should be dropped comparatively low in the mouth, for in this position it has a tendency to encourage flexion and yielding.
After a couple of weeks of treatment with the bitting harness, during which time the pupil may be given leading exercise, it is well to begin the use of the dumb jockey and cavesson (Plate LX). The modern dumb jockey is made with two hard-rubber arms, each extending upward and outward from the centre of the pad ; these are furnished with eyes into which the side reins, etc., can be fastened. These side reins are made partly of rubber, so that they will yield to a comparatively light pressure, thereby to a great extent obviating the danger of a " dead pull." The horse very soon finds that his head and mouth are more comfortable and easy when he yields to the pressure exerted by the elasticity of the rubber, and consequently drops his head into the position which gives him that relief. This is exactly similar to the result which a man with excellent hands is able to accomplish, and which is so much to be desired.
The cavesson is no more nor less than a rigid noseband to which rings are attached on the front and