throne." The master summed up his morals in this saying, " Reciprocity is the one comprehensive rule of life."
The nation had been slowly developing for three centuries before the time of Yaou. It was averse to foreign wars and conquests. Its riches came from the fertile earth at home. Very early in their history they had invented writing. In the reign of CheHwang-ti, 221 B. C., the Marquis Tsae invented the manufacture of paper from the inner bark of trees, ends of hemp, old rags and fishing nets. Brushpencils with ink were used in writing. This ink, under the misplaced name of India Ink, is now extensively used by artists in Europe and America. The art of block-printing was invented in 593 C. E. and movable types four centuries later.
From the invention of paper on, great libraries became the glory and pride of the people, learning was everywhere encouraged, and a general system ,of education became the settled policy of the nation.
The ruling traits of character and the physical geography of China were well fitted to sustain the expanding growth of the ages into one of the most populous empires of the world. At the present stage of its growth, China requires the fertilizing influence of European science and art before it can reach that high ideal foretold by the great sages, Kong-fu-tse, Lao-tse and Mencius. But it does not need this science and art as enforced by European arrogance, egotism and cannon. We must respect its real attainments and character. A nation must possess strong elements of morality and justice in order to sustain its national unity and integrity during the long lapse of forty centuries.