OLD AND NEW FORMS. 53
proves that they have left unrepresented all of the
collective wants from the upper and nobler half of the
brain. This is marked in the initial engraving on
page 52. That is the best result that mere human
experience and the light of history could give.
For three thousand years the statesmen undertook to learn these collective wants by the light of experience. They studied history with great diligence. They knew the conduct of men. The proud result of all their vain labor is summed up in our engraving of civilism. Their method itself was essentially imperfect. And they discovered less than half of the wants of man.
The statesmen knew, as Blackstone says, that "The wants of individuals are the natural foundations of society." But they had no standard of completeness. In a disconnected way they multiplied institutions and officers by the hundreds. Thus we find state and municipal governments, legislators, senates, councils, cabinets, bureaus, agricultural societies, literary and scientific associations, public and private schools and colleges, art societies, fraternal and secret lodges, labor unions, railway companies, fighting armies, etc. Each of these has a board of officers, numbering from three up to forty.
With all this complication one would think that nothing should be left out. Yet the result was the vast deficiencies we have already noted. To imitate the past was to work after very imperfect copies.
The statesmen knew the outside of men. That was like studying the outside case of a watch. You could not learn its mechanism; could not learn to