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Yet if we look through the Justinian Code, 427 B. C., we shall find that many of its laws were simply codified statements of what had been established by ancient customs. In the Mosaic Code of the Bible the same is true. Many of its laws and provisions simply stated in a more formal way things that had long been done among the Israelites and the surrounding nations.

Is IT RIGHT then, for each man to follow his own momentary impulses in acting with his fellowmen, in affairs of public life? Even in a mob, men do not follow individual impulses. All the great ends of social or collective action would be defeated in that way. Collective action requires a common thought, unity of purpose, and a well understood plan of procedure.

Men differ in their ideas because they have been born with their faculties developed in different degrees and they have been subjected to different conditions and influences, as well as teachings. Men come to agree with each other by a comparison of their ideas and by a common study of how their ideas originated. In this way they at length reach that form of knowledge which is called science.

Now scientific proof is always of such a character that all persons can understand it alike. Hence, science can always be made a safe basis for united action among men. Science discovers laws; it does not invent them. Science explains, but it does not dictate. Its authority is not personal, but is in the very nature of the objects which it describes.

When man was created, or evolved, as you like, nature did not overlook the great fact that in all

ages men would associate with each other in comniunities and nations. Nature did not overlook the twelve social organs in the brain through which this result has been made a perpetual necessity. And nature did not fail to provide inherent laws for these organs of the brain, just as she did for the eye, the ear, the lungs, and all other organs. We cannot invent or make laws for seeing, or hearing, or breathing. Neither can we make nor invent true laws for the social faculties, for the collective action and institutions among men.

But we may discover and apply these laws. We may supply them with good conditions for their higher and more perfect action, and we may write these laws down in clear statements so that they shall become the common basis of agreement and collective activities.

"SOCIAL STATICS ' should describe natural in

stitutions, and " social dynamics " should describe the natural and therefore normal actions of society. If man's faculties did not remain permanently the same, then these two branches of sociology could not be developed and would never reach a practical form.

No legislative or other lawmaking bodies are required in the new social order. Instead of these, we have the deparments of science. The work of discovering, formulating and applying the natural social laws is done in these departments and those of culture. In any case where the required natural law is not known, then temporary expedients may be adopted until the natural law can be discovered.

Discoveries and inventions are made by members who are in various departments of employment,


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