SOCIAL BALANCES. 79
than man. We may say that the true function of religion is two-fold.. First, it must unite the entire human race in one composite and responsive life. Second, it must unite and harmonize man with the living, conscious beings of the universe.
UNITY OF PLAN. In this phase of our general subject we may well consider for a moment why we should not divide up the necessary functions of society among a large number of quite independent organizations and leave the mass of the people free to support and use these as they please without any concern of the civil government. This would be the kind of social growth that has taken place in the United States, in Britain and various civilized countries. It seems to the people themselves that it secures them a great amount of freedom. However, We shall soon see that it involves an unnatural and unhealthy social growth and defeats its own apparent ends. The argument here will rest upon laws of evolution now accepted by science.
EVOLUTION OF TRADES. The division of labor
the specialization of functions, governs the social progress of man no less than it does the development of the entire scale of animals. For example, in national infancy each person performs every kind of labor pursued by any of the rest. Each man, in a rude way, is at once hunter, farmer, mechanic and merchant. The savage chief hunts his own game, dresses and cooks it, gathers his own nuts and wild fruit, and makes his own rude clothing of skins, and his ruder hut of sticks and mud.
In later periods, persons who show particular aptitude for special kinds of labor begin to devote