SUMMARY OF EVOLUTION. 91
SUMMARY OF EVOLUTION.
ist. Evolution proceeds from simplicity to complexity in both the structure and function of the parts involved. In any case, the simplicity may have been the result of a devolution or passage from a previous state of complexity. There is a descending as well as an ascending phase of evolution.
2d. The advancement in complexity is effected by the specialization or division of labor among a greater number o parts or members, which become varied in structure or character for the new functions. And the functions are thus carried on more perfectly than before. The acting forces are both within the object evolved and in the external conditions, with mutual reactions.
3d. The specialization involves the increase of mutual dependence between the parts, so that finally the perfect action or life of each part is made possible only by that of the rest. The individuality of each part is thus closely related to the degree of mutual dependence.
4th. In geologic ages and in human history, the evolution of the brain and nervous system has advanced from the rule of parts at the base and back to the rule of parts at the top and front.
5th. The evolution of personal, national and race-life includes the successive phases of infancy, childhood, youth, maturity and senility; the advancement being from the base to the top of the brain, from the sensuous and animal faculties to the higher intellectual and spiritual regions.
6th. As the nations of Europe and America, of China, India and Japan have now entered upon the great phase of maturity, they will apply the methods of science, instead of mere experience, to all the problems in the intellectual, social and industrial life and structures of society.
7th. The institutions must be in harmony with the nature and wants of man. But the collective wants of man in society arise from each of the twelve groups of mental faculties, and these must therefore be represented by as many departments and officers in the social organism.