THE BULLDOG 19
is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should
be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess
of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact. The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square ; that is, it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skullthat is, the distance between the eye and the ear-is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the " stop " between the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The expression " well broken up " is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression is well finished.
The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head
and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly
this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of
the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron