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When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of the period turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this pastime the Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief centres in London where these exhibitions took place were the Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden at Bankside, and the Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to obtain greater quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. It is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought one hundred and four battles without once suffering defeat.

The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing of the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had previously been the chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. At one time it was stated that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of Hamilton's strain, were the only remaining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon their decease the Bulldog would become extinct-a prophecy which all Bulldog lovers happily find incorrect.

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, were not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. Still, the outline of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and Rosa, is considered to represent perfection in the shape, make, and size of the ideal type of Bulldog. The only objections which have been taken are that the bitch is deficient in wrinkles about the head and neck, and in substance of bone in the limbs.

The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled classes to be provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed them was offered to the dog fancier. In certain districts of the country, notably in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and Dudley, a number of fanciers resided, and it is to their efforts that we are indebted for the varied specimens of the breed that are to be seen at the present time.

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance


is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should

be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess

of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact. The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square ; that is, it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skullthat is, the distance between the eye and the ear-is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the " stop " between the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The expression " well broken up " is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression is well finished.

The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head

and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly

this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of

the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron

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