20 DOGS AND ALL ABOUT THEM
instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews. The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this colour should extend to the lower lip ; its top should be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.
When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the lay-back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog from the side.
The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and breathing would then be stopped.
The upper lip, called the " chop," or flews, should be thick, broad, pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering the teeth completely. The amount of
" cushion " which a dog may have is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not be pendulous.
The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the
tusks being wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project in front of the upper. The teeth
should be large and strong, and the six small teeth between
the tusks should be in an even row. The upper jaw cannot be
too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower jaws
are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said
to be " down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot
he is said to be " froggy." A " wry-faced " dog is one having
the lower jaw twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the