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well arched at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep, making the dog appear very broad and shortlegged in front. The shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the body ; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.

The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep from the shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, and be well let down between the fore-legs. It should be large in diameter, and round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided nor sinking, which it will not do provided that the first and succeeding ribs are well rounded. The belly should be well tucked up and not pendulous, a small narrow waist being greatly admired. The desired object in body formation is to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest possible around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very high, when the dog is said to have a good " cut-up."

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately, many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient in this respect. Some dogs dip very considerably some distance behind the shoulders before the upward curve of the spine begins, and these are known as " swamp-backed " ; others rise in an almost straight line to the root of the tail, and are known as " stern-high."

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be


quite round in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level of the backbone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it is known as " ring-tailed." The ideal length of tail is about six inches.

Many fanciers demand a " screw " or " kinked " tail, that is, one having congenital dislocations at the joints, but such appendages are not desirable in the best interests of the breed.

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide apart, thick, muscular, and short, with well-developed muscles in the calves, presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him.

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them. If this property be absent the dog is said to be " on the leg." The ankles or pasterns should be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and turn very slightly outwards ; they should be of medium size and moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and high.

The'hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should


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