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resemblance to the original type, and for this the Pekinese Club is in some measure to blame. The original points for the guidance of breeders and judges were drawn up by Lady Samuelson, Mrs. Douglas Murray, and Lady Algernon GordonLennox, who fixed the maximum size at io lb.-a very generous margin. Since then the club has amended the scale"of points, no doubt in order to secure a larger membership, and the maximum now stands at i8 lb.

Is it therefore to be wondered at that confusion exists as to what is the true type ? At shows there should be two distinct classes ; the Palace dog and the Pekin Spaniel, or any other name which would enable the breeds to be kept distinct.

The following is the scale of points as issued by the Pekinese

Club :

Head-Massive, broad skull, wide and flat between the ears (not dome shaped) ; wide between the eyes. Nose-Black, broad, very short and flat. Eyes-Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous. Stop-Deep. Ears--Heart-shaped; not set too high ; leather never long enough to come below the muzzle ; not carried erect, but rather drooping, long feather. Muzele-Very short and broad ; not underhung nor pointed ; wrinkled. Mane-Profuse, extending beyond shoulder blades, forming ruff or frill round front of neck. Shape of Body-Heavy in front ; broad chest falling away lighter behind ; lion-like ; not too long in the body. Coat and Feather and ConditionLong, with thick undercoat ; straight and flat, not curly nor wavy ; rather coarse but soft ; feather on thighs, legs, tail and toes, long and profuse. Colour-All colours allowable, red, fawn, black, black and tan, sable, brindle, white and parti-coloured. Black masks, and spectacles round the eyes, with lines to the ears, are desirable. Legs— Short ; fore-legs heavy, bowed out at elbows ; hind-legs lighter, but firm and well shaped. Feet-Flat, not round ; should stand well up on toes, not on ankles. Tail-Curled and carried well up on loins ; long, profuse straight feather. Size-Being a toy dog the smaller the better, provided type and points are not sacrificed. Anything over 18 lb. should disqualify. When divided by weight, classes should be over 10 lb., and under 10 lb. Action-Free, strong and high ; crossing feet or throwing them out in running should not take off marks ; weakness of joints should be penalised.

Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox has occasionally been criticised for her advocacy of whole-coloured specimens, but in support of this preference it can be proved that the original pair brought to Goodwood, as well as Mrs. Murray's Ah Cum,

were all of the golden chestnut shade ; and, as no brindled, parti-coloured, or black dog has ever been born at Goodwood or Broughton, we have some authority for looking upon wholecolour as an important point. This view was in the first place confirmed by the late Chinese Ambassador in London, and further by Baron Speck von Sternberg, who was for many years Minister at Pekin and had very special facilities for noting the points of the Palace dogs.

In every case a black muzzle is indispensable, also black points to the ears, with trousers, tail and feathering a somewhat lighter shade than the body. There is considerable divergence of opinion as to the penalisation of what, in other breeds, is known as a " Dudley " nose, but on this point there must be some difficulty at shows ; in the Pekinese the colour of the nose varies in a remarkable way, especially in the case of the bitches. For instance, a pinkish tinge was always visible on the nose of Goodwood Meh before the birth of her puppies ; but it resumed its normal colour when the puppies were a few weeks old. As a representative type, Chu-Erh of Alderbourne resembles most nearly the old Goodwood dogs. He has the same square, cobby appearance, broad chest, bowed legs, profuse feather, and large, lustrous eyes-points which are frequently looked for in vain nowadays-and his breeder and owner may well be proud of him.

The Pekinese differs from the Japanese dog in that it appears to be far stronger in constitution, and withstands the changes of the English climate with much greater ease ; in fact, they are as hardy, under healthy conditions, as any English breed, and the only serious trouble seems to be the weakness which is developing in the eyes. Small abscesses frequently appear when the puppies are a few months old, and, although they may not affect the sight, they almost inevitably leave a bluish mark, while in some cases the eye itself becomes contracted. Whether this is one of the results of in-breeding it is difficult to say, and it would be of interest to know whether the same trouble is met with in China.



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