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The Pekinese bitches are excellent mothers, provided they are not interfered with for the first few days. This was discovered at Goodwood years ago by the fact that, on two or three occasions, one Celestial lady, who had been given greater attention than she considered necessary, revenged herself by devouring her own family of puppies ! One thing seems from experience to be especially advisable-as far as can be arranged, to breed in the spring rather than autumn. The puppies need all the open air and exercise that is possible, and where rickety specimens are so frequently met with it is only natural that a puppy who starts life with the summer months ahead is more likely to develop well than one born in the autumn. Great attention should be paid with reference to the frequent-almost certain-presence of worms, which trouble seems more prevalent with Pekinese than with any other breed. Wherever possible, fish should be given as part of the dietary ; some Pekinese devour it with relish ; others will not touch it, but there is no doubt it is a useful item in the bill of fare. Bread well soaked in very strong stock, sheep's head, and liver are always better as regular diet than meat, but in cases of debility a little raw meat given once a day is most beneficial.

It would not be fitting to close an article on Pekinese without bearing testimony to their extraordinarily attractive characteristics. They are intensely affectionate and faithful, and have something almost cat-like in their domesticity. They display far more character than the so-called " toy dog " usually does, and for this reason it is all-important that pains should be taken to preserve the true type, in a recognition of the fact that quality is more essential than quantity.

As their breed-name implies, these tiny black and white, longhaired lap dogs are reputed to be natives of the land of the chrysanthemum. The Japanese, who have treasured them for centuries, have the belief that they are not less ancient than the dogs of Malta. There seems to be a probability,

however, that the breed may claim to be Chinese just as surely as Japanese. The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, an authority on exotic dogs whose opinion must always be taken with respect, is inclined to the belief that they are related to the short-nosed Spaniels of Thibet ; while other experts are equally of opinion that the variety is an offshoot from the Spaniels of Pekin. It is fairly certain that they are indigenous to the Far East, whence we have derived so many of our small snub-nosed, large-eyed, and long-haired pets. The Oriental peoples have always bred their lap dogs to small size, convenient for carrying in the sleeve. The " sleeve dog " and the " chin dog " are common and appropriate appellations in the East.

The Japanese Spaniel was certainly known in England half a century ago, and probably much earlier. Our seamen often brought them home as presents for their sweethearts. These early imported specimens were generally of the larger kind, and if they were bred from-which is doubtful-it was by crossing with the already long-established King Charles or Blenheim Spaniels. Their colours were not invariably white and black. Many were white and red, or white with lemonyellow patches. The colouring other than white was usually about the long-fringed ears and the crown of the head, with a line of white running from the point of the snub black nose between the eyes as far as the occiput. This blaze up the face was commonly said to resemble the body of a butterfly, whose closed wings were represented by the dog's expansive ears.

The white and black colouring is now the most frequent. The points desired are a broad and rounded skull, large in proportion to the dog's body ; a wide, strong muzzle and a turned-up lower jaw. Great length of body is not good ; the back should be short and level. The legs are by preference slender and much feathered, the feet large and well separated. An important point is the coat. It should be abundant, particularly about the neck, where it forms a ruffle,



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