AILMENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT 335
Their usual habitat, however, is the small intestines, where they occasion great distress to their host. The appetite is always depraved and voracious. At times there is colic, with sickness and perhaps vomiting, and the bowels are alternately constipated or loose. The coat is harsh and staring, there usually is short, dry cough from reflex irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane, a bad-smelling breath and emaciation or at least considerable poverty of flesh.
The disease is most common in puppies and in young dogs. The appearance of the ascaris in the dog's stools is, of course, the diagnostic symptom.
Treatment-I have cured many cases with santonin and areca-nut powder (betel-nut), dose 10 grains to 2 drachms ; or turpentine, dose from 10 drops to 1 j< drachms, beaten up with yolk of egg.
But areca-nut does better for tape-worm, so we cannot do better than trust to pure santonin. The dose is from 1 grain for a Toy up to 6 grains for a Mastiff. Mix it with a little butter, and stick it well back in the roof of the dog's mouth. He must have fasted previously for twelve hours, and had a dose of castor oil the day before. In four or five hours after he has swallowed the santonin, let him have a dose of either olive oil or decoction of aloes. Dose, 2 drachms to 2 ounces or more. Repeat the treatment in five days. Spratts' cure may be safely depended on for worms.*
The perfect cleanliness of the kennel is of paramount importance.
The animal's general health requires looking after, and he may be brought once more into good condition by proper food and a course of vegetable tonics. If wanted in show condition we have Plasmon to fall back upon, and Burroughs and Wellcome's extract of malt.
There is a round-worm which at times infests the dog's bladder, and may cause occlusion of the urethra ; a whip-worm inhabiting the caecum ; another may occupy a position in the mucous membrane of the stomach ; some infest the blood, and others the eye.
(2) Tape-worms-There are several kinds, but the treatment is the same in all cases. The commonest in the country is the Cucumerine.
This is a tape-worm of about fifteen inches in average length, although I have taken them from Newfoundland pups fully thirty inches long. It is a semi-tansparent entozoon ; each segment is long compared to its breadth, and narrowed at both ends. Each joint has, when detached, an independent sexual existence.
The dog often becomes infested with this parasite from eating sheeps' brains, and dogs thus afflicted and allowed to roam at pleasure over fields and hills where sheep are fed sow the seeds of gid in our flocks to any extent. We know too well the great use of Collie dogs to the shepherd or grazier to advise that dogs should not be employed as assistants, but surely it would be to their owners' advantage to see that they were kept in a state of health and cleanliness.
Treatment-We ought to endeavour to prevent as well as to cure. We should never allow our dogs to eat the entrails of hares or rabbits. Never allow them to be fed on raw sheep's intestines, nor the brains of sheep. Never permit them to lounge around butchers' shops, nor
* Many dog owners swear by the preparation called Ruby, which can be recommended as a cure for worms.-ED.