336 DOGS AND ALL ABOUT THEM
eat offal of any kind. Let their food be well cooked, and their skins and kennels kept scrupulously clean. Dogs that are used for sheep and cattle ought, twice a year at least, to go under treatment for the expulsion of worms, whether they are infested or not ; an anthelmintic would make sure, and could hardly hurt them.
For the expulsion of tape-worms we depend mostly on areca-nut. In order that the tape-worm should receive the full benefit of the remedy, we order a dose of castor oil the day before in the morning, and recommend no food to be given that day except beef-tea or mutton broth. The bowels are thus empty next morning, so that the parasite cannot shelter itself anywhere, and is therefore sure to be acted on.
Infusion of cusco is sometimes used as an anthelmintic, so is wormwood, and the liquid extract of male fern, and in America spigelia root and pumpkin seeds.
The best tonic to give in cases of worms is the extract of quassia. Extract of quassia, 1 to 10 grains ; extract of hyoscyamus, } to 5 grains. To make one pill. Thrice daily.
Washing with Spratts' medicated soap. Extra clean kennels. Dusting with Keating, and afterwards washing. This may not kill the fleas, but it drives them off. Take the dog on the grass while dusting, and begin along the spine. Never do it in the house.
I have noticed these disagreeable bloodsuckers only on the heads and bodies of sporting or Collie dogs, who had been boring for some time through coverts and thickets. They soon make themselves visible, as the body swells up with the blood they suck until they resemble small soft warts about as big as a pea. They belong to the natural family, Ixodiadze.
Treatment-If not very numerous they should be cut off, and the part touched with a little turps. The sulphuret of calcium will also kill them, so will the more dangerous white precipitate, or even a strong solution of carbolic acid, which must be used sparingly, however.
The lice are hatched from nits, which we find clinging in rows, and very tenaciously too, to the hairs. The insects themselves are more difficult to find, but they are on puppies sometimes in thousands. To destroy them I have tried several plans. Oil is very effectual, and has safety to recommend it. Common sweet oil is as good a cure as any, and you may add a little oil of anise and some sublimed sulphur, which will increase the effect. Quassia water may be used to damp the coat. The matted portions of a long-haired dog's coat must be cut off with scissors, for there the lice often lurk. The oil dressing will not kill the nits, so that vinegar must be used. After a few days the dressing must be repeated, and so on three or four times. To do any good, the whole of the dog's coat must be drenched in oil, and the dog washed with good dog soap and warm water twelve hours afterwards.