this position he will find it difficult, unless he is a powerful man, to apply a great amount of brute force to the reins. The hand and arm so placed form, as it were, a spring between the horse's mouth and the driver, thus precluding, to a great extent, the possibility of making a puller (either man or horse).
It is for this very reason that the American system of driving with a rein in each hand (except possibly in the case of trotting horses) is to be deprecated, because it inclines one to pull steadily against the bit, which sooner or later is sure to make the horse a puller.
As the pupil advances from single and pair horse work to the four-in-hand school, it may be well to call his attention to the fact that the mere " herding " of four horses over a road, even with a fair amount of form, is not driving, although it constantly passes for such.
The true coachman must study the individual characteristics of his horses, in order to bit and couple them to the best advantage. He must know how they are feeding, for in a team (of four horses) it is nothing unusual to have one horse which is slightly off, and therefore requires a certain amount of what a coachman calls "babying."
Nothing will give one more practice in work of this sort than the driving of a loaded coach thirty or forty